Advance of Surgery Without Animal Experiments
With the discovery of anesthetics and the rebirth of hygienic principles (another success for clinical medicine 33,34), the range of operations expanded rapidly as surgeons were able to take more time over their work. During this innovative period, many argued that surgical advances must come from clinical practice rather than animal experiments.(35) In 1882 the great English abdominal surgeon Lawson Tait, who has been called the father of surgical asepsis,(36) wrote that vivisection had done more harm than good in surgery (37) while Royal surgeon Sir Frederick Treves warned that after experiments on the canine bowel he was "much hampered" and had "everything to unlearn" when he came to deal with the human intestine.(38)
Sir Frederick Treves argued that experiments on the canine bowel "much hampered" his work. "I had everything to unlearn," he wrote, "my experiments had done little but unfit me to deal with the human intestine."
In 1930, Sir Berkeley Moynihan, president of the Royal College of Surgeons, spoke out against animal experiments during a speech at the Banting Research Institute in Toronto:(39)
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